{fmt}

Small, safe and fast formatting library

Overview

fmt (formerly cppformat) is an open-source formatting library. It can be used as a safe alternative to printf or as a fast alternative to C++ IOStreams.

What users say:
Thanks for creating this library. It’s been a hole in C++ for a long time. I’ve used both boost::format and loki::SPrintf, and neither felt like the right answer. This does.

Format API

The replacement-based Format API provides a safe alternative to printf, sprintf and friends with comparable or better performance. The format string syntax is similar to the one used by str.format in Python:

fmt::format("The answer is {}", 42);

The fmt::format function returns a string “The answer is 42”. You can use fmt::MemoryWriter to avoid constructing std::string:

fmt::MemoryWriter w;
w.write("Look, a {} string", 'C');
w.c_str(); // returns a C string (const char*)

The fmt::print function performs formatting and writes the result to a file:

fmt::print(stderr, "System error code = {}\n", errno);

The file argument can be omitted in which case the function prints to stdout:

fmt::print("Don't {}\n", "panic");

If your compiler supports C++11, then the formatting functions are implemented with variadic templates. Otherwise variadic functions are emulated by generating a set of lightweight wrappers. This ensures compatibility with older compilers while providing a natural API.

The Format API also supports positional arguments useful for localization:

fmt::print("I'd rather be {1} than {0}.", "right", "happy");

Named arguments can be created with fmt::arg. This makes it easier to track what goes where when multiple values are being inserted:

fmt::print("Hello, {name}! The answer is {number}. Goodbye, {name}.",
           fmt::arg("name", "World"), fmt::arg("number", 42));

If your compiler supports C++11 user-defined literals, the suffix _a offers an alternative, slightly terser syntax for named arguments:

fmt::print("Hello, {name}! The answer is {number}. Goodbye, {name}.",
           "name"_a="World", "number"_a=42);

The _format suffix may be used to format string literals similar to Python:

std::string message = "{0}{1}{0}"_format("abra", "cad");

Other than the placement of the format string on the left of the operator, _format is functionally identical to fmt::format. In order to use the literal operators, they must be made visible with the directive using namespace fmt::literals;. Note that this brings in only _a and _format but nothing else from the fmt namespace.

Write API

The concatenation-based Write API (experimental) provides a fast stateless alternative to IOStreams:

fmt::MemoryWriter out;
out << "The answer in hexadecimal is " << hex(42);

Safety

The library is fully type safe, automatic memory management prevents buffer overflow, errors in format strings are reported using exceptions. For example, the code

fmt::format("The answer is {:d}", "forty-two");

throws a FormatError exception with description “unknown format code ‘d’ for string”, because the argument "forty-two" is a string while the format code d only applies to integers.

Where possible, errors are caught at compile time. For example, the code

fmt::format("Cyrillic letter {}", L'\x42e');

produces a compile-time error because wide character L'\x42e' cannot be formatted into a narrow string. You can use a wide format string instead:

fmt::format(L"Cyrillic letter {}", L'\x42e');

For comparison, writing a wide character to std::ostream results in its numeric value being written to the stream (i.e. 1070 instead of letter ‘ю’ which is represented by L'\x42e' if we use Unicode) which is rarely what is needed.

Portability

The library is highly portable. Here is an incomplete list of operating systems and compilers where it has been tested and known to work:

  • 64-bit (amd64) GNU/Linux with GCC 4.4.3, 4.6.3, 4.7.2, 4.8.1 and Intel C++ Compiler (ICC) 14.0.2
  • 32-bit (i386) GNU/Linux with GCC 4.4.3, 4.6.3
  • Mac OS X with GCC 4.2.1 and Clang 4.2, 5.1.0
  • 64-bit Windows with Visual C++ 2010, 2013 and 2015
  • 32-bit Windows with Visual C++ 2010

Although the library uses C++11 features when available, it also works with older compilers and standard library implementations. The only thing to keep in mind for C++98 portability:

  • Variadic templates: minimum GCC 4.4, Clang 2.9 or VS2013. This feature allows the Format API to accept an unlimited number of arguments. With older compilers the maximum is 15.
  • User-defined literals: minimum GCC 4.7, Clang 3.1 or VS2015. The suffixes _format and _a are functionally equivalent to the functions fmt::format and fmt::arg.

The output of all formatting functions is consistent across platforms. In particular, formatting a floating-point infinity always gives inf while the output of printf is platform-dependent in this case. For example,

fmt::print("{}", std::numeric_limits<double>::infinity());

always prints inf.

Ease of Use

fmt has a small self-contained code base consisting of a single header file and a single source file and no external dependencies. A permissive BSD license allows using the library both in open-source and commercial projects.

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